Research & References

Research Topics



Head & Neck Cancer Trismus - Incidence


1 - Dijkstra P.U. , W.W.I. Kalk, J.L.N. Roodenburg ; Trismus in head and neck oncology: a systematic review ; Oral Oncology - October 2004 (Vol. 40, Issue 9, Pages 879-889, DOI: 10.1016/ j.oraloncology.2004.04.003)

2 - Sakai, S.-I., Kubo, T., Mori, N., Itoh, M., Miyaguchi, M., Kitaoku, S., Sakata, Y. and Fuchihata, H., ; A study of the late effects of radiotherapy and operation on patients with maxillary cancer: A survey more than 10 years after initial treatment. ; Cancer. 1988 Nov 15;62(10):2114-7.

3 - Johnson J, van As-Brooks CJ, Fagerberg-Mohlin B, Finizia C.; Trismus in head and neck cancer patients in Sweden: incidence and risk factors.; Med Sci Monit. 2010 Jun;16(6):CR278-82.

4 - Wu Yong-ru and Zhang You-wang (Cancer Hospital, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai);; TRISMUS IN PATIENTS WITH NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA BEFORE AND AFTER IRRADIATION[J];; CHINESE JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY;1994-03

5 - Louise Kent M, Brennan MT, Noll JL, Fox PC, Burri SH, Hunter JC, Lockhart PB.; Radiation-induced trismus in head and neck cancer patients.; Support Care Cancer. 2008 Mar;16(3):305-9. Epub 2007 Oct 27.

6 - Weber C, Dommerich S, Pau HW, Kramp B.; Limited mouth opening after primary therapy of head and neck cancer.; Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Apr 1. [Epub ahead of print]

8 - Jeremic G, Venkatesan V, Hallock A, Scott D, Hammond A, Read N, Franklin J, Yoo J, Fung K.; Trismus following treatment of head and neck cancer.; J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011 Aug;40(4):323-9.

9 - CHEN Ming, ZENG Xiang-fa, ZHAO Chong, WU Shao-xiong, HUANG Xiao-yan, HAN Fei, LUO Wei, LU Tai-xiang, CUI Nian-ji ; Radiation-Induced Temporomandibular Joint Lesion in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma[J];; Chinese Journal of Cancer;2001-06

10 - Wang CJ, Huang EY, Hsu HC, Chen HC, Fang FM, Hsiung CY.; The degree and time-course assessment of radiation-induced trismus occurring after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer.; Laryngoscope. 2005 Aug;115(8):1458-60.

11 - Bhatia KS, King AD, Paunipagar BK, Abrigo J, Vlantis AC, Leung SF, Ahuja AT.; MRI findings in patients with severe trismus following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.; Eur Radiol. 2009 Nov;19(11):2586-93. Epub 2009 Jun 6.

12 - Goldstein M, Maxymiw WG, Cummings BJ, Wood RE.; The effects of antitumor irradiation on mandibular opening and mobility: a prospective study of 58 patients.; Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1999 Sep;88(3):365-73.

14 - Scott B, Butterworth C, Lowe D, Rogers SN.; Factors associated with restricted mouth opening and its relationship to health-related quality of life in patients attending a Maxillofacial Oncology clinic.; Oral Oncol. 2008 May;44(5):430-8. Epub 2007 Sep 7.

15 - Dijkstra PU, Huisman PM, Roodenburg JL.; Criteria for trismus in head and neck oncology.; Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Apr;35(4):337-42. Epub 2005 Nov 8.

16 - Teguh DN, Levendag PC, Voet P, van der Est H, Noever I, de Kruijf W, van Rooij P, Schmitz PI, Heijmen BJ.; Trismus in patients with oropharyngeal cancer: relationship with dose in structures of mastication apparatus.; Head Neck. 2008 May;30(5):622-30.

17 - Hoole J, Jenkins GW, Kanatas AN, Mitchell DA.; Reliability and validity of a new method of nurse-led assessment of trismus.; Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Sep;49(6):430-7. Epub 2010 Aug 6.

19 - van der Molen L, van Rossum MA, Burkhead LM, Smeele LE, Rasch CR, Hilgers FJ.; A randomized preventive rehabilitation trial in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy: feasibility, compliance, and short-term effects.; Dysphagia. 2011 Jun;26(2):155-70. Epub 2010 Jul 11.

25 - Li XH, Liao YP, Tang JT, Zhou JM, Wang GH.; [Effect of early rehabilitation training on radiation-induced trismus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients] [Article in Chinese]; Ai Zheng. 2007 Sep;26(9):987-90.

26 - Lee R, Slevin N, Musgrove B, Swindell R, Molassiotis A.; Prediction of post-treatment trismus in head and neck cancer patients.; Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]

27 - Bensadoun RJ, Riesenbeck D, Lockhart PB, Elting LS, Spijkervet FK, Brennan MT; ; A systematic review of trismus induced by cancer therapies in head and neck cancer patients.; Trismus Section, Oral Care Study Group, Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society of Oral Oncology (ISOO).

32 - Brosseau L ; Milne S ; Wells G ; Tugwell P ; Robinson V ; Casimiro L ; Pelland L ; Noel MJ ; Davis J ; Drouin H; Efficacy of continuous passive motion following total knee arthroplasty: a metaanalysis; The Journal of rheumatology. 2004. Nov; 31(11): 2251-64.

33 - Brown DT ; Gaudet EL Jr; Temporomandibular disorder treatment outcomes: second report of a large-scale prospective clinical study.; Cranio. 2002. Oct 20(4): 244-53.

34 - Brunello DL ; Mandikos MN; The use of a dynamic opening device in the treatment of radiation induced trismus.; Just Prosthodont J. 1995. 9: 45-8.

35 - Buchbinder D ; Currivan RB ; Kaplan AJ ; Urken ML; Mobilization regimens for the prevention of jaw hypomobility in the radiated patient: a comparison of three techniques.; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993. Aug; 51(8): 863-7.

36 - Clark HM; Neuromuscular treatments for speech and swallowing: a tutorial.; Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2003. Nov; 12(4): 400-15.

37 - Cohen EG ; Deschler DG ; Walsh K ; Hayden RE; Early use of a mechanical stretching device to improve mandibular mobility after composite resection: a pilot study.; Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation.. 2005. Jul 86(7): 1416-9.

38 - De Deyne PG; Application of passive stretch and its implications for muscle fibers.; Phys Ther (Physical therapy.). 2001. Feb; 81(2): 819-27.

39 - Dhert WJ ; O'Driscoll SW ; van Royen BJ ; Salter RB; Effects of immobilization and continuous passive motion on postoperative muscle atrophy in mature rabbits.; Canadian journal of surgery.. 1988. May; 31(3): 185-8.

40 - Doornberg JN, Ring D, Jupiter JB.; Static progressive splinting for posttraumatic elbow stiffness.; J Orthop Trauma.. 2006. Jul;20(6):400-4.

42 - Ferretti M ; Srinivasan A ; Deschner J ; Gassner R ; Baliko F ; Piesco N ; Salter R ; Agarwal S; Anti-inflammatory effects of continuous passive motion on meniscal fibrocartilage; Journal of orthopaedic research. 2005. Sep; 23(5): 1165-71.

44 - Frank C ; Akeson WH ; Woo SL ; Amiel D ; Coutts RD; Physiology and therapeutic value of passive joint motion; Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984. May(185): 113-25.

45 - G. Pizzo, G. A. Scardina and P. Messina; Effects of a nonsurgical exercise program on the decreased mouth opening in patients with systemic scleroderma; Clinical Oral Investigations. 2003. 9 July , 175-178.

50 - Horst RW v; Trismus: its causes, effects and treatment.; ORL Head Neck Nurs. 1994. Spring 12(2): 11-2.

51 - Israel HA ; Ward JD ; Horrell B ; Scrivani SJ; Oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain.; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003. Jun 61(6): 662-7.

55 - Johnson DP ; Eastwood DM; Beneficial effects of continuous passive motion after total condylar knee arthroplasty.; Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1992. Nov; 74(6): 412-6.

56 - Kim HK ; Kerr RG ; Cruz TF ; Salter RB; Effects of continuous passive motion and immobilization on synovitis and cartilage degradation in antigen induced arthritis.; J Rheumatol (The Journal of rheumatology. 1995. Sep; 22(9): 1714-21.

57 - Kuwahara T, Bessette RW, Maruyama T; Effect of continuous passive motion on the results of TMJ meniscectomy. Part I: Comparison of chewing movement.; Cranio. 1996. Jul, 14(3):190-199.

60 - Lydiatt DD ; Davis LF; The effects of immobilization on the rabbit temporomandibular joint.; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1985. Mar; 43(3): 188-93.

61 - Maloney GE, Mehta N, Forgione AG, Zawawi KH, Al-Badawi EA, Driscoll SE.; Effect of a passive jaw motion device on pain and range of motion in TMD patients not responding to flat plane intraoral appliances.; Cranio. 2002. Jan 20(1):55-66.

64 - McInnes J ; Larson MG ; Daltroy LH ; Brown T ; Fossel AH ; Eaton HM ; Shulman-Kirwan B ; Steindorf S ; Poss R ; Liang MH; A controlled evaluation of continuous passive motion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.; JAMA. 1992. Sep 16; 268(11): 1423-8.

65 - Milam SB ; Zardeneta G ; Schmitz JP; Oxidative stress and degenerative temporomandibular joint disease: a proposed hypothesis.; J Oral Maxillofac Surg (. 1998. Feb; 56(2): 214-23.

66 - Millett PJ ; Johnson B ; Carlson J ; Krishnan S ; Steadman JR; Rehabilitation of the arthrofibrotic knee.; American journal of orthopedics. 2003. Nov; 32(11): 531-8.

67 - Milne S ; Brosseau L ; Robinson V ; Noel MJ ; Davis J ; Drouin H ; Wells G ; Tugwell P; Continuous passive motion following total knee arthroplasty; Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2003. (2): CD004260.

68 - Mussa R ; Hans MG ; Enlow D ; Goldberg J; Condylar cartilage response to continuous passive motion in adult guinea pigs: A pilot study.; Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1999. Apr; 115(4): 360-7.

70 - Nicolakis P ; Erdogmus B ; Kopf A ; Djaber-Ansari A ; Piehslinger E ; Fialka-Moser V; Exercise therapy for craniomandibular disorders.; Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000. Sep; 81(9): 1137-42.

71 - Nicolakis P ; Erdogmus B ; Kopf A ; Ebenbichler G ; Kollmitzer J ; Piehslinger E ; Fialka-Moser V; Effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint.; J Oral Rehabil. 2001. Dec; 28(12): 1158-64.

73 - Nicolakis P ; Erdogmus CB ; Kollmitzer J ; Kerschan-Schindl K ; Sengstbratl M ; Nuhr M ; Crevenna R ; Fialka-Moser V; Long-term outcome after treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis with exercise and manual therapy.; Cranio. 2002. Jan; 20(1): 23-7.

74 - Oh DW ; Kim KS ; Lee GW v; The effect of physiotherapy on post-temporomandibular joint surgery patients.; J Oral Rehabil. 2002. May 29(5): 441-6.

76 - ROBERT R. LEMKE, D.D.S., M.D. and JOSEPH VAN SICKELS, D.D.S.; ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS PASSIVE MOTION VERSUS MANUAL REHABILITATION OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993. Dec 51(12):1311-4.

79 - Schmitter M ; Zahran M ; Duc JM ; Henschel V ; Rammelsberg P; Conservative therapy in patients with anterior disc displacement without reduction using 2 common splints: a randomized clinical trial.; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005. Sep 63(9): 1295-303.

81 - Sebastian MH, Moffett BC.; The effects of continuous passive motion on the temporomandibular joint after surgery. Part II. Appliance improvement, normal subject evaluation, pilot clinical trial.; Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1989. Jun 67(6):644-53.

82 - Su-Gwan K ; Treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis with temporalis muscle and fascia flap. ; Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001. Jun 30(3): 189-93.

83 - V Sambojan; JE Cillo ; RJ Gassner, MJ Buckley; The Effects of Mechanical Strain on Synovial Fibroblasts; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003. 61:707-712,

85 - Xu Z ; Buckley MJ ; Evans CH ; Agarwal S; Cyclic tensile strain acts as an antagonist of IL-1 beta actions in chondrocytes.; Journal of immunology. 2000. Jul 1; 165(1): 453-60.

86 - H Seikaly; Xerostomia Prevention After Head and Neck Cancer Treatment ; Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:250-251.

88 - Youssef S. Abou-Atme, Nada Chedid, Marcello Melis, Khalid H. Zawawi; Clinical measurement of normal maximum mouth opening in children; CRANIO: The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice, July, 2008

89 - Michael J. Wahl ; Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths ; International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - 1 March 2006 (Vol. 64, Issue 3, Pages 661-669,)

91 - CEJ Hall, LE Shutt; Nasotracheal intubation for head and neck surgery; Anaesthesia, 58: 249–256. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2044.2003.03034.x

93 - Shulman DH, Shipman B, Willis FB.; Treating trismus with dynamic splinting: a cohort, case series.; Adv Ther. 2008 Jan;25(1):9-16.

96 - Jensen SB, Pedersen AM, Vissink A, et.al.; A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: management strategies and economic impact.; Support Care Cancer. 2010 Aug;18(8):1061-79. Epub 2010 Mar 25.

Head & Neck Cancer Trismus - Prevention and Treatment

13 - Tang Y, Shen Q, Wang Y, Lu K, Wang Y, Peng Y.; A randomized prospective study of rehabilitation therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced dysphagia and trismus.; Strahlenther Onkol. 2011 Jan;187(1):39-44. Epub 2010 Dec 10.

18 - Jager-Wittenaar H, Dijkstra PU, Vissink A, van Oort RP, Roodenburg JL.; Variation in repeated mouth-opening measurements in head and neck cancer patients with and without trismus.; Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009 Jan;38(1):26-30. Epub 2008 Nov 28.

20 - Ichimura K, Tanaka T. ; Trismus in patients with malignant tumours in the head and neck. ; J Laryngol Otol. 1993 Nov;107(11):1017-20.

21 - Melchers LJ, Van Weert E, Beurskens CH, Reintsema H, Slagter AP, Roodenburg JL, Dijkstra PU.; Exercise adherence in patients with trismus due to head and neck oncology: a qualitative study into the use of the Therabite.; Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009 Sep;38(9):947-54. Epub 2009 May 2.

22 - MA Yin,YANG Yi,AI Li-juan; Oral Treatment for Prevention of Trismus in Nasopharngeal Carcinoma Patients after Radiotherapy[J];; Journal of Kunming Medical University;2009-02

23 - SONG Dan, JIANG Ming-hua.; Effect of man-made intervention on intensity modulated radiation therapy-induced trismus in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma[J];; Chinese Clinical Oncology;2008-11

24 - Dijkstra PU, Sterken MW, Pater R, Spijkervet FK, Roodenburg JL.; Exercise therapy for trismus in head and neck cancer.; Oral Oncol. 2007 Apr;43(4):389-94. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

28 - Brian O’Sullivan, Wilfred Levin ; Late radiation-related fibrosis: pathogenesis, manifestations, and current management ; Seminars in Radiation Oncology - July 2003 (Vol. 13, Issue 3, Pages 274-289, DOI: 10.1016/S1053-4296(03)00037-7)

29 - Scott B, D'Souza J, Perinparajah N, Lowe D, Rogers SN.; Longitudinal evaluation of restricted mouth opening (trismus) in patients following primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.; Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print]

30 - Bonutti PM ; Windau JE ; Ables BA ; Miller BG; Static progressive stretch to reestablish elbow range of motion.; Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1994. Jun(303): 128-34.

31 - Bressel E ; McNair PJ; The effect of prolonged static and cyclic stretching on ankle joint stiffness, torque relaxation, and gait in people with stroke.; Phys Ther. 2002. Sep; 82(9): 880-7.

41 - Dougherty, M. E. PT; Warden, G. D. MD; A Thirty-Year Review of Oral Appliances Used to Manage Microstomia, 1972 to 2002; Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation. 2003. Volume 24(6)Nov/Dec 2003pp 418-431.

43 - Fiedler F ; Stoll P ; Lauer G ; Otten JE; Passive and continuous temporomandibular movement--functional treatment after surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ); Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofa. 1993. 94(3): 178-80.

46 - Gassner R, Buckley MJ, Piesco N, Evans C, Agarwal S.; [Cytokine-induced nitric oxide production of joint cartilage cells in continuous passive movement. Anti-inflammatory effect of continuous passive movement on chondrocytes: in vitro study]; Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 2000. Sep 4 Suppl 2:S479-84.

47 - Gelinas JJ ; Faber KJ ; Patterson SD ; King GJ; The effectiveness of turnbuckle splinting for elbow contractures.; The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 2000. 82(1): 74-8.

48 - Greco, Joan M; Van Sickels, Joseph E.;; The Efficacy of Continuous Passive Motion on Chronically Injured Temporomandibular Joints; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1989. V. 47, pg 139.

49 - Harrison JS ; Dale RA ; Haveman CW ; Redding SW; Oral complications in radiation therapy.; Gen Dent (General dentistry.). 2003. Nov-Dec 51(6): 552-60; quiz 561.

52 - Israel HA, Syrop SB.; The important role of motion in the rehabilitation of patients with mandibular hypomobility: a review of the literature.; Cranio. 1997. Jan;15(1):74-83.

53 - Issack PS ; Egol KA; Posttraumatic contracture of the elbow: current management issues.; Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 2006. 63(3-4): 129-36.

54 - Jansen CM ; Windau JE ; Bonutti PM ; Brillhart MV; Treatment of a knee contracture using a knee orthosis incorporating stress-relaxation techniques.; Physical Therapy. 1996. Feb; 76(2): 182-6.

58 - Laureano Filho JR ; de Oliveira e Silva ED ; Batista CI ; Gouveia FM; The influence of cryotherapy on reduction of swelling, pain and trismus after third-molar extraction: a preliminary study.; Journal of the American Dental Association. 2005. .

59 - Lund TW ; Cohen JI; Trismus appliances and indications for use.; Quintessence Int. 1993. Apr; 24(4): 275-9.

62 - Mark G. Fontenot, D.D.S., M.Eng., and John N. Kent, D.D.S.; The Use of Continuous Passive Motion Following Total Temporomandibular Joint Arthroplasty; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1989. V. 47, pg 138.

63 - McCarty WL Jr ; Darnell MW; Rehabilitation of the temporomandibular joint through the application of motion.; Cranio. 1993. Oct 11(4): 298-307.

69 - Nicolakis P ; Burak EC ; Kollmitzer J ; Kopf A ; Piehslinger E ; Wiesinger GF ; Fialka-Moser V; An investigation of the effectiveness of exercise and manual therapy in treating symptoms of TMJ osteoarthritis.; Cranio. 2001. Jan 19(1): 26-32.

72 - Nicolakis P ; Erdogmus B ; Kopf A ; Nicolakis M ; Piehslinger E ; Fialka-Moser V; Effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.; J Oral Rehabil. 2002. Apr; 29(4): 362-8.

77 - Roed-Petersen B; [Fracture induced constriction treated by Continuous Passive Motion (CPM); Tandlaegernes Tidsskr. 1992. May (5): 140-3.

78 - Salter RB; The biologic concept of continuous passive motion of synovial joints. The first 18 years of basic research and its clinical application.; Clin Orthop. 1989. May(242): 12-25.

80 - Schultz-Johnson K.; Static progressive splinting.; J Hand Ther.. 2002. Apr-Jun;15(2):163-78..

84 - Witwity T ; Uhlmann R ; Nagy MH ; Bhasin VB ; Bahgat MM ; Singh AK ; Shoulder rheumatoid arthritis associated with chondromatosis, treated by arthroscopy; Arthroscopy. 1991. 7(2): 233-6.

87 - Heasman PA, Thomason JM, Robinson JG.; The provision of prostheses for patients with severe limitation in opening of the mouth.; Br Dent J. 1994 Mar 5;176(5):171-4.

90 - Anurag Gupta, BDS; Joel B. Epstein, DMD, MSD, FRCD(C); Herve Sroussi, DMD, PhD; Hyposalivation in Elderly Patients; J Can Dent Assoc 2006; 72(9):841–6

92 - Duke RL, Campbell BH, Indresano AT, Eaton DJ, Marbella AM, Myers KB, Layde PM.; Dental status and quality of life in long-term head and neck cancer survivors.; Laryngoscope. 2005 Apr;115(4):678-83.

Jaw Motion Rehab Systems - Passive Motion Therapy - OraStretch press and TheraBite Systems


20 - Ichimura K, Tanaka T. ; Trismus in patients with malignant tumours in the head and neck. ; J Laryngol Otol. 1993 Nov;107(11):1017-20.

21 - Melchers LJ, Van Weert E, Beurskens CH, Reintsema H, Slagter AP, Roodenburg JL, Dijkstra PU.; Exercise adherence in patients with trismus due to head and neck oncology: a qualitative study into the use of the Therabite.; Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009 Sep;38(9):947-54. Epub 2009 May 2.

22 - MA Yin,YANG Yi,AI Li-juan; Oral Treatment for Prevention of Trismus in Nasopharngeal Carcinoma Patients after Radiotherapy[J];; Journal of Kunming Medical University;2009-02

23 - SONG Dan, JIANG Ming-hua.; Effect of man-made intervention on intensity modulated radiation therapy-induced trismus in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma[J];; Chinese Clinical Oncology;2008-11

28 - Brian O’Sullivan, Wilfred Levin ; Late radiation-related fibrosis: pathogenesis, manifestations, and current management ; Seminars in Radiation Oncology - July 2003 (Vol. 13, Issue 3, Pages 274-289, DOI: 10.1016/S1053-4296(03)00037-7)

30 - Bonutti PM ; Windau JE ; Ables BA ; Miller BG; Static progressive stretch to reestablish elbow range of motion.; Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1994. Jun(303): 128-34.

31 - Bressel E ; McNair PJ; The effect of prolonged static and cyclic stretching on ankle joint stiffness, torque relaxation, and gait in people with stroke.; Phys Ther. 2002. Sep; 82(9): 880-7.

46 - Gassner R, Buckley MJ, Piesco N, Evans C, Agarwal S.; [Cytokine-induced nitric oxide production of joint cartilage cells in continuous passive movement. Anti-inflammatory effect of continuous passive movement on chondrocytes: in vitro study]; Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 2000. Sep 4 Suppl 2:S479-84.

47 - Gelinas JJ ; Faber KJ ; Patterson SD ; King GJ; The effectiveness of turnbuckle splinting for elbow contractures.; The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 2000. 82(1): 74-8.

48 - Greco, Joan M; Van Sickels, Joseph E.;; The Efficacy of Continuous Passive Motion on Chronically Injured Temporomandibular Joints; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1989. V. 47, pg 139.

49 - Harrison JS ; Dale RA ; Haveman CW ; Redding SW; Oral complications in radiation therapy.; Gen Dent (General dentistry.). 2003. Nov-Dec 51(6): 552-60; quiz 561.

52 - Israel HA, Syrop SB.; The important role of motion in the rehabilitation of patients with mandibular hypomobility: a review of the literature.; Cranio. 1997. Jan;15(1):74-83.

58 - Laureano Filho JR ; de Oliveira e Silva ED ; Batista CI ; Gouveia FM; The influence of cryotherapy on reduction of swelling, pain and trismus after third-molar extraction: a preliminary study.; Journal of the American Dental Association. 2005. .

62 - Mark G. Fontenot, D.D.S., M.Eng., and John N. Kent, D.D.S.; The Use of Continuous Passive Motion Following Total Temporomandibular Joint Arthroplasty; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1989. V. 47, pg 138.

63 - McCarty WL Jr ; Darnell MW; Rehabilitation of the temporomandibular joint through the application of motion.; Cranio. 1993. Oct 11(4): 298-307.

84 - Witwity T ; Uhlmann R ; Nagy MH ; Bhasin VB ; Bahgat MM ; Singh AK ; Shoulder rheumatoid arthritis associated with chondromatosis, treated by arthroscopy; Arthroscopy. 1991. 7(2): 233-6.

92 - Duke RL, Campbell BH, Indresano AT, Eaton DJ, Marbella AM, Myers KB, Layde PM.; Dental status and quality of life in long-term head and neck cancer survivors.; Laryngoscope. 2005 Apr;115(4):678-83.

103 - Kamstra JI, JLN Roodenburg, DHG Beurskens, H renstema, PU Dijkstra; TheraBite exercises to treat trismus secondary to head and neck cancer; Supportive Care in Cancer, April 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 951-957,

104 - Singh r, Rao K, et.al; SHORT TERM EFFECT OF THERABITE® ON TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL; Romanian Journal of Physical Therapy 12/2013; 19(33):49-56.

105 - Madani A, Mirmortazavi A, ; Comparison of three treatment options for painful temporomandibular joint clicking.; J Oral Sci. 2011 Sep;53(3):349-54.

106 - Retèl VP, L van der Molen, LMG. Steuten, MW van den Brekel, FJM Hilgers; A cost-effectiveness analysis of using TheraBite in a preventive exercise program for patients with advanced head and neck cancer treated with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy; Eur Arch of Oto-Rhino-Lary, Feb 2015

107 - Kraaijenga s; L van der Molen; H van Tinteren; F Hilgers; L Smeele; Treatment of myogenic temporomandibular disorder: a prospective randomized clinical trial, comparing a mechanical stretching device (TheraBite®) with standard physical therapy exercise.; Cranio, Volume 32, Issue 3 (July 2014), pp. 208-216

109 - Loorents V, Rosell j, Karlsson C, Lidbäck M, Hultman K, Börjeson S; Prophylactic training for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced trismus – a randomised study; Acta Oncologica, April 2014, Vol. 53, No. 4 , Pages 530-538

110 - van der Molen L, van Rossum MA, Coen RN, Smeele LE, Hilgers FJ.; Two-year results of a prospective preventive swallowing rehabilitation trial in patients treated with chemoradiation for advanced head and neck cancer; Eur Arch of Oto-Rhino-Lary, Feb 2015

113 - Pauli, N., Fagerberg-Mohlin, B., Andréll, P., & Finizia, C; Exercise intervention for the treatment of trismus in head and neck cancer. ; Acta Oncologica, 53(4), 502-509.

120 - Pauli, N., Andréll, P., Johansson, M., Fagerberg-Mohlin, B., & Finizia, C.; Treating trismus: A prospective study on effect and compliance to jaw exercise therapy in head and neck cancer.; Head & neck.

124 - Cipriani, D. J., Terry, M. E., Haines, M. A., Tabibnia, A. P., & Lyssanova, O.; Comparison of cyclic and sustained passive stretching using a mechanical device to increase resting length of hamstring muscles.; Physical Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.25). 04/1988; 68(3):314-20.

126 - Montalvo C, Finizia C, Pauli N, Fagerberg-Mohlin B, Andréll P.; Impact of exercise with TheraBite device on trismus and health-related quality of life: A prospective study; Ear Nose Throat J. 2017 Jan;96(1):E1-E6.

127 - Pauli N, Svensson U, Karlsson T, Finizia C.; Exercise intervention for the treatment of trismus in head and neck cancer – a prospective two-year follow-up stud; Acta Oncologica, 55:6, 686-692

150 - Nina Pauli,, Bodil Fagerberg-Mohlin, Paulin Andréll & Caterina Finizia ; Exercise intervention for the treatment of trismus in head and neck cancer; Journal Acta Oncologica Volume 53, 2014 - Issue 4

170 - Starring DT, Gossman MR, Nicholson GG Jr, Lemons J.; Comparison of cyclic and sustained passive stretching using a mechanical device to increase resting length of hamstring muscles.; Phys Ther. 1988 Mar;68(3):314-20.

173 - Furto ES, Cleland JA, Whitman JM, Olson KA.; Manual physical therapy interventions and exercise for patients with temporomandibular disorders.; Cranio. 2006 Oct;24(4):283-91.

175 - Richa Singh*, Keerthi Rao, Deepak Anap, Chandra Iyer and Subhash Khatri; The Short Term Effect of TheraBite® on Temporomandibular Dysfunction: A Case Study ; J Palliative Care Med 1:102. doi: 10.4172/2329-9096.1000102

177 - McFadden LR, Rishiraj B.; Treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a case report.; J Can Dent Assoc. 2001 Dec;67(11):659-63.

178 - Smith, Philip J et al.; The use of an orthodontic appliance to stabilize a temporomandibular joint-continuous passive motion machine; Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , Volume 53 , Issue 6 , 724 - 726

179 - Mishra S, Tripathy R, Sabhlok S, Roy R. ; Management of adult unilateral TMJ ankylosis with temporalis muscle and fascia flap: review of 51 cases; Intl J Head and Neck Surg, 2012;3(3):133-136

186 - Cardoso R, Beadle B, Chambers M.; A Retrospective Review of Radiation-Induced Trismus in Head-and-Neck Cancer: An MD Anderson Experience; International Journal of Radiation Oncology. 2013

Continuous Passive Motion Therapy Abstracts

31 - Bressel E ; McNair PJ; The effect of prolonged static and cyclic stretching on ankle joint stiffness, torque relaxation, and gait in people with stroke.; Phys Ther. 2002. Sep; 82(9): 880-7.

32 - Brosseau L ; Milne S ; Wells G ; Tugwell P ; Robinson V ; Casimiro L ; Pelland L ; Noel MJ ; Davis J ; Drouin H; Efficacy of continuous passive motion following total knee arthroplasty: a metaanalysis; The Journal of rheumatology. 2004. Nov; 31(11): 2251-64.

39 - Dhert WJ ; O'Driscoll SW ; van Royen BJ ; Salter RB; Effects of immobilization and continuous passive motion on postoperative muscle atrophy in mature rabbits.; Canadian journal of surgery.. 1988. May; 31(3): 185-8.

42 - Ferretti M ; Srinivasan A ; Deschner J ; Gassner R ; Baliko F ; Piesco N ; Salter R ; Agarwal S; Anti-inflammatory effects of continuous passive motion on meniscal fibrocartilage; Journal of orthopaedic research. 2005. Sep; 23(5): 1165-71.

43 - Fiedler F ; Stoll P ; Lauer G ; Otten JE; Passive and continuous temporomandibular movement--functional treatment after surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ); Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofa. 1993. 94(3): 178-80.

46 - Gassner R, Buckley MJ, Piesco N, Evans C, Agarwal S.; [Cytokine-induced nitric oxide production of joint cartilage cells in continuous passive movement. Anti-inflammatory effect of continuous passive movement on chondrocytes: in vitro study]; Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 2000. Sep 4 Suppl 2:S479-84.

48 - Greco, Joan M; Van Sickels, Joseph E.;; The Efficacy of Continuous Passive Motion on Chronically Injured Temporomandibular Joints; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1989. V. 47, pg 139.

51 - Israel HA ; Ward JD ; Horrell B ; Scrivani SJ; Oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain.; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003. Jun 61(6): 662-7.

52 - Israel HA, Syrop SB.; The important role of motion in the rehabilitation of patients with mandibular hypomobility: a review of the literature.; Cranio. 1997. Jan;15(1):74-83.

55 - Johnson DP ; Eastwood DM; Beneficial effects of continuous passive motion after total condylar knee arthroplasty.; Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1992. Nov; 74(6): 412-6.

56 - Kim HK ; Kerr RG ; Cruz TF ; Salter RB; Effects of continuous passive motion and immobilization on synovitis and cartilage degradation in antigen induced arthritis.; J Rheumatol (The Journal of rheumatology. 1995. Sep; 22(9): 1714-21.

57 - Kuwahara T, Bessette RW, Maruyama T; Effect of continuous passive motion on the results of TMJ meniscectomy. Part I: Comparison of chewing movement.; Cranio. 1996. Jul, 14(3):190-199.

60 - Lydiatt DD ; Davis LF; The effects of immobilization on the rabbit temporomandibular joint.; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1985. Mar; 43(3): 188-93.

62 - Mark G. Fontenot, D.D.S., M.Eng., and John N. Kent, D.D.S.; The Use of Continuous Passive Motion Following Total Temporomandibular Joint Arthroplasty; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1989. V. 47, pg 138.

63 - McCarty WL Jr ; Darnell MW; Rehabilitation of the temporomandibular joint through the application of motion.; Cranio. 1993. Oct 11(4): 298-307.

64 - McInnes J ; Larson MG ; Daltroy LH ; Brown T ; Fossel AH ; Eaton HM ; Shulman-Kirwan B ; Steindorf S ; Poss R ; Liang MH; A controlled evaluation of continuous passive motion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.; JAMA. 1992. Sep 16; 268(11): 1423-8.

66 - Millett PJ ; Johnson B ; Carlson J ; Krishnan S ; Steadman JR; Rehabilitation of the arthrofibrotic knee.; American journal of orthopedics. 2003. Nov; 32(11): 531-8.

67 - Milne S ; Brosseau L ; Robinson V ; Noel MJ ; Davis J ; Drouin H ; Wells G ; Tugwell P; Continuous passive motion following total knee arthroplasty; Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2003. (2): CD004260.

68 - Mussa R ; Hans MG ; Enlow D ; Goldberg J; Condylar cartilage response to continuous passive motion in adult guinea pigs: A pilot study.; Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1999. Apr; 115(4): 360-7.

76 - ROBERT R. LEMKE, D.D.S., M.D. and JOSEPH VAN SICKELS, D.D.S.; ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS PASSIVE MOTION VERSUS MANUAL REHABILITATION OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT; J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993. Dec 51(12):1311-4.

77 - Roed-Petersen B; [Fracture induced constriction treated by Continuous Passive Motion (CPM); Tandlaegernes Tidsskr. 1992. May (5): 140-3.

78 - Salter RB; The biologic concept of continuous passive motion of synovial joints. The first 18 years of basic research and its clinical application.; Clin Orthop. 1989. May(242): 12-25.

81 - Sebastian MH, Moffett BC.; The effects of continuous passive motion on the temporomandibular joint after surgery. Part II. Appliance improvement, normal subject evaluation, pilot clinical trial.; Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1989. Jun 67(6):644-53.

84 - Witwity T ; Uhlmann R ; Nagy MH ; Bhasin VB ; Bahgat MM ; Singh AK ; Shoulder rheumatoid arthritis associated with chondromatosis, treated by arthroscopy; Arthroscopy. 1991. 7(2): 233-6.

85 - Xu Z ; Buckley MJ ; Evans CH ; Agarwal S; Cyclic tensile strain acts as an antagonist of IL-1 beta actions in chondrocytes.; Journal of immunology. 2000. Jul 1; 165(1): 453-60.

124 - Cipriani, D. J., Terry, M. E., Haines, M. A., Tabibnia, A. P., & Lyssanova, O.; Comparison of cyclic and sustained passive stretching using a mechanical device to increase resting length of hamstring muscles.; Physical Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.25). 04/1988; 68(3):314-20.

177 - McFadden LR, Rishiraj B.; Treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a case report.; J Can Dent Assoc. 2001 Dec;67(11):659-63.

178 - Smith, Philip J et al.; The use of an orthodontic appliance to stabilize a temporomandibular joint-continuous passive motion machine; Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , Volume 53 , Issue 6 , 724 - 726

179 - Mishra S, Tripathy R, Sabhlok S, Roy R. ; Management of adult unilateral TMJ ankylosis with temporalis muscle and fascia flap: review of 51 cases; Intl J Head and Neck Surg, 2012;3(3):133-136

Dynamic Stretching

34 - Brunello DL ; Mandikos MN; The use of a dynamic opening device in the treatment of radiation induced trismus.; Just Prosthodont J. 1995. 9: 45-8.

93 - Shulman DH, Shipman B, Willis FB.; Treating trismus with dynamic splinting: a cohort, case series.; Adv Ther. 2008 Jan;25(1):9-16.

121 - Barañano, C. F., Rosenthal, E. L., Morgan, B. A., McColloch, N. L., & Magnuson, J. S.; Dynasplint for the management of trismus after treatment of upper aerodigestive tract cancer: a retrospective study.; Ear, nose, & throat journal, 90(12), 584-590.

184 - Tanaka E, Detamore MS, Mercuri LG.; Degenerative disorders of the temporomandibular joint: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.; J Dent Res. 2008 Apr;87(4):296-307.

Static Progressive Stretching/Stress Relaxation Therapy 


40 - Doornberg JN, Ring D, Jupiter JB.; Static progressive splinting for posttraumatic elbow stiffness.; J Orthop Trauma.. 2006. Jul;20(6):400-4.

47 - Gelinas JJ ; Faber KJ ; Patterson SD ; King GJ; The effectiveness of turnbuckle splinting for elbow contractures.; The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 2000. 82(1): 74-8.

53 - Issack PS ; Egol KA; Posttraumatic contracture of the elbow: current management issues.; Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 2006. 63(3-4): 129-36.

54 - Jansen CM ; Windau JE ; Bonutti PM ; Brillhart MV; Treatment of a knee contracture using a knee orthosis incorporating stress-relaxation techniques.; Physical Therapy. 1996. Feb; 76(2): 182-6.

66 - Millett PJ ; Johnson B ; Carlson J ; Krishnan S ; Steadman JR; Rehabilitation of the arthrofibrotic knee.; American journal of orthopedics. 2003. Nov; 32(11): 531-8.

80 - Schultz-Johnson K.; Static progressive splinting.; J Hand Ther.. 2002. Apr-Jun;15(2):163-78..

DynaCleft® Cleft Positioning System

D1 - Monasterio L, Ford A, Gutiérrez C, Tastets ME, García J.; Comparative study of nasoalveolar molding methods: nasal elevator plus DynaCleft® versus NAM-Grayson in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.; Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2013 Sep;50(5):548-54. doi: 10.1597/11-245. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

D2 - Berggren A, Abdiu A, Marcusson A, Paulin G.; The nasal alar elevator: an effective tool in the presurgical treatment of infants born with cleft lip.; Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005 May;115(6):1785-7.

D3 - Abdiu A, P Ohannessian, A Berggren; The nasal alar elevator: A new device that may reduce the need for primary operation of the nose in patients with cleft lip; Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, 43:2, 71-74, 2009

D4 - Vinson L.; The Effect of DynaCleft® on Cleft Width in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.; J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2017;41(6):442-445. doi: 10.17796/1053-4628-41.6.4. Epub 2017 Sep 22.